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Data are increasingly available from prospective studies.In addition, whereas early study samples consisted mainly of children originally born into heterosexual relationships that subsequently dissolved when one parent came out as gay or lesbian, recent samples are more likely to include children conceived within a same-sex relationship or adopted in infancy by a same-sex couple.

A 2002 review of the literature identified 20 studies examining outcomes among children raised by gay or lesbian parents and found that these children did not systematically differ from those raised by heterosexual parents on any of the studied outcomes. Office of Personnel Management, Michael Lamb, a professor of psychology and head of Department of Social and Developmental Psychology at Cambridge University, stated: The methodologies used in the major studies of same-sex parenting meet the standards for research in the field of developmental psychology and psychology generally.According to US Census Snapshot published in December 2007, same-sex couples with children have significantly fewer economic resources and significantly lower rates of home ownership than heterosexual married couples.In the United States, studies on the effect of gay and lesbian parenting on children were first conducted in the 1970s, and expanded through the 1980s in the context of increasing numbers of gay and lesbian parents seeking legal custody of their biological children.Many lesbian and gay parents are not open about their sexual orientation due to real fears of discrimination, homophobia, and threats of losing custody of their children.Those who do participate in this type of research are usually relatively open about their homosexuality and, therefore, may bias the research towards a particular group of gay and lesbian parents.In some countries the donor can choose to be anonymous (for example in Spain) and in others he cannot have his identity withheld (United Kingdom).Currently scientists conduct research on alternative types of human parenthood which can aid same-sex couples to have children.In 2010 a Florida court declared that reports and studies find that there are no differences in the parenting of homosexuals or the adjustment of their children, therefore the Court is satisfied that the issue is so far beyond dispute that it would be irrational to hold otherwise Some gay couples, especially male couples, decide to have a surrogate pregnancy.A surrogate is a woman carrying an egg fertilised by sperm of one of the men.Prior to publication in these journals, these studies were required to go through a rigorous peer-review process, and as a result, they constitute the type of research that members of the respective professions consider reliable.The body of research on same-sex families is consistent with standards in the relevant fields and produces reliable conclusions." Gartrell and Bos note that the study's limitations included utilizing a non-random sample, and the lesbian group and control group were not matched for race or area of residence.

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