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Comparing and validating measurements of dependability attributes

It is estimated that 40–60% of the observed variance in personality is due to characteristics of temperament (Cloninger et al., 1993; Bouchard, 1994; Loehlin et al., 1998; Robins, 2005). doi: 10.1016/j.schres.20 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Knickmeyer, R., Baron-Cohen, S., Raggatt, P., and Taylor, K. Foetal testosterone, social relationships and restricted interests in Children.

Temperament is a heritable pattern of cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior influenced by experience (Terracciano et al., 2005; Roberts and Mroczek, 2008) but largely stable across the lifespan (Bouchard, 1994; Mc Crae et al., 2000; Roberts and Del Vecchio, 2000). (2000), “Temperament arises from our genetic endowment.

According to Funder (2001) there is still the question of whether the “Big Five subsume all there is to say about personality.

The answer is almost certainly no: whereas almost any personality construct can be mapped onto the Big Five, you cannot derive every personality construct from the Big Five.” This appears to be particularly true for aspects of temperament such as empathy, something not necessarily tied to agreeableness, as we report here. doi: 10.1016/20 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kang, D.

As researchers have noted, “…investigations must be integrated with knowledge of how personality is organized at the broadest levels, where large neural networks and broadly acting neuromodulators are likely to be important across situations” (De Young and Gray, 2009).

Even though there are effective and useful measures already available, we saw a need for an inventory that would be more generally descriptive of non-pathological behaviors shown in everyday, normal life, based on basic physiological influences on behavior, and easily understood and applied by individuals in a wide range of disciplines.

The ultimate purposes of the above investigations are: (1) To identify biologically based behaviors associated with variations in basic, non-pathologic temperament and, (2) using the FTI as an index of human variation in broad basic neural systems and behaviors, develop another useful tool to choose from, for use in psychotherapy, business, medicine, and the legal community. Heritability of the big five personality dimensions and their facets: a twin study.

Five Factor personality models have been widely used in industrial and organizational psychology and business to predict job satisfaction and performance.

The physiological hypothesis preceded the physiological tests. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1996.tb00522.x Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Judge, T.

Further, no existing personality or temperament measure focuses on all four of these broad brain systems: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone, and estrogen/oxytocin systems, central neural pathways characteristic of all mammalian and avian species.

Dopamine has been found to be associated with both Extraversion and Openness to Experience.

Previous studies and evidence presented here suggests that the Curious/Energetic scale of the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI) may include both and use the dopamine system (Brown et al., 2013).

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