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Ample opportunities were given him, "having diligently attained to all things from the beginning", concerning the Gospel and early Acts, to write in order what had been delivered by those "who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word" (Luke 1:2, 3). This same conclusion is corroborated by the recurrence of medical language in all parts of the Acts and the Gospel. Græcum", Amsterdam, 1741, 643), states that there are clear indications of his medical profession throughout St.

It is held by many writers that the Gospel was written during this time, Ramsay is of opinion that the Epistle to the Hebrews was then composed, and that St. When Paul appealed to Cæsar, Luke and Aristarchus accompanied him from Cæsarea, and were with him during the stormy voyage from Crete to Malta. Paul's two Roman imprisonments, but he must have met several of the Apostles and disciples during his various journeys. Paul in his last imprisonment; for the Apostle, writing for the last time to Timothy, says: "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course. Luke's writings; and in the course of his commentary he points out several technical expressions common to the Evangelist and the medical writings of Galen.

Such an idea would not have occurred to anyone; and, if it had, he could not have carried it out with such marvellous success. They had access to practically the whole Christian literature of preceding centuries; but they nowhere hint that the authorship of the Gospel (and Acts) was ever called in question. He travelled much and had for instructors in the Faith an Ionian, an Italian, a Syrian, an Egyptian, an Assyrian, and a Hebrew in Palestine. Tertullian was born at Carthage, lived some time in Rome, and then returned to Carthage. and writes: "I say then that among them, and not only among the Apostolic Churches, but among all the Churches which are united with them in Christian fellowship, the Gospel of Luke, which we earnestly defend, has been maintained from its first publication" (Adv. The Gospels had been copied and recopied so often, that, through errors of copying, etc., distinct families of text had time to establish themselves.

If we take a few chapters of the Gospel and note down the special, peculiar, and characteristic words, phrases and constructions, and then open the Acts at random, we shall find the same literary peculiarities constantly recurring. This, taken by itself, would be a stronger argument than can be adduced for the majority of classical works. Clement of Alexandria was probably born at Athens about A. "And these men, preserving the true tradition of the blessed teaching directly from Peter and James, John and Paul, the holy Apostles, son receiving it from father, came by God's providence even unto us, to deposit among us those seeds [of truth] which were derived from their ancestors and the Apostles". His quotations from the Gospels, when brought together by Rönsch, cover two hundred pages. The Gospels were so widespread that they became known to pagans. In his "Apology" he speaks of the memoirs of the Lord which are called Gospels, and which were written by Apostles (Matthew, John) and disciples of the Apostles (Mark, Luke).

This opinion is fast gaining ground even amongst ultra critics, and Harnack declares that the others hold out because there exists a disposition amongst them to ignore the facts that tell against them, and he speaks of "the truly pitiful history of the criticism of the Acts". Colossians, II Corinthians, the Pastoral Epistles, First (and to a lesser extent Second) Peter, possess a Lucan character." When all these points are taken into consideration, they afford convincing proof that the author of the Gospel and Acts was St. Paul, and this is fully borne out by the external evidence.

Only the briefest summary of the arguments can be given here. Of the characteristic words and phrases which mark the three Synoptic Gospels a little more than half are common to St. The proof in favour of the unity of authorship, derived from the internal character of the two books, is strengthened when taken in connection with the external evidence.

The argument is cumulative, and does not give way with its weakest strands. Those, however, who have studied it [Hobart's book] carefully, will, I think, find it impossible to escape the conclusion that the question here is not one of merely accidental linguistic coloring, but that this great historical work was composed by a writer who was either a physician or was quite intimately acquainted with medical language and science. Paul who wrote the Acts (and the Gospel) was a physician. Paul when he wrote to the Colossians, Philemon, and Ephesians; and also when he wrote the Second Epistle to Timothy. Among the most striking are those given by Plummer (44).

When doubtful cases and expressions common to the Septuagint, are set aside, a large number remain that seem quite unassailable. 13) says: "It is as good as certain from the subject-matter, and more especially from the style, of this great work that the author was a physician by profession. And, indeed, this conclusion holds good not only for the 'we' sections, but for the whole book." Harnack gives the subject special treatment in an appendix of twenty-two pages. The latter observes (Einl., II, 427): "Hobart has proved for everyone who can appreciate proof that the author of the Lucan work was a man practised in the scientific language of Greek medicine--in short, a Greek physician" (quoted by Harnack, op. In this connection, Plummer, though he speaks more cautiously of Hobart's argument, is practically in agreement with these writers. From the manner in which he is spoken of, a long period of intercourse is implied. The same author gives long lists of words and expressions found in the Gospel and Acts and in St. But more than this, Eager in "The Expositor" (July and August, 1894), in his attempt to prove that St.

Paul during the two years of the latter's imprisonment at Cæarea. But it is not alone in vocabulary, syntax and style, that this uniformity is manifest. His choice of medical language proves that the author was a physician.

In that period he might well become acquainted with the circumstances of the death of Herod Agrippa I, who had died there eaten up by worms" (), and he was likely to be better informed on the subject than Josephus. In "The Acts of the Apostles", Harnack devotes many pages to a detailed consideration of the manner in which chronological data, and terms dealing with lands, nations, cities, and houses, are employed throughout the Acts, as well as the mode of dealing with persons and miracles, and he everywhere shows that the unity of authorship cannot be denied except by those who ignore the facts. Westein, in his preface to the Gospel ("Novum Test.

We should naturally expect that the long intercourse between St. Luke would mutually influence their vocabulary, and their writings show that this was really the case. Westcott shows that there is no trace in Justin of the use of any written document on the life of Christ except our Gospels. that His parents went thither [to Bethlehem] in consequence of an enrolment under Cyrinius — that as they could not find a lodging in the village they lodged in a cave close by it, where Christ was born, and laid by Mary in a manger", etc. There is a constant intermixture in Justin's quotations of the narratives of St. He states, however, that the memoirs which were called Gospels were read in the churches on Sunday along with the writings of the Prophets, in other words, they were placed on an equal rank with the Old Testament.

"He [Justin] tells us that Christ was descended from Abraham through Jacob, Judah, Phares, Jesse, David — that the Angel Gabriel was sent to announce His birth to the Virgin Mary — that it was in fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah . In the "Dialogue", cv, we have a passage peculiar to St. "Jesus as He gave up His Spirit upon the Cross said, Father, into thy hands I commend my Spirit?

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